# The Density of Linear-time Properties

Bernd Finkbeiner and Hazem Torfah

Finding models for linear-time properties is a central problem in verification and planning. We study the distribution of linear-time models by investigating the density of linear-time properties over the space of ultimately periodic words. The density of a property over a bound n is the ratio of the number of lasso-shaped words of length n that satisfy the property to the total number of lasso-shaped words of length n. We investigate the problem of computing the density for both linear-time properties in general and for the important special case of omega-regular properties. For general linear-time properties, the density is not necessarily convergent and can oscillate indefinitely for certain properties. However, we show the oscillation can be bounded by the growth of the sets of bad- and good-prefix of the property. For omega-regular properties, we show that the density is always convergent and provide a general algorithm for computing the density of omega-regular properties as well as more specialized algorithms for certain sub-classes and their combinations.

15th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis (ATVA 2017).