# A Temporal Logic for Hyperproperties

Bernd Finkbeiner, Markus N. Rabe, César Sánchez

Hyperproperties, as introduced by Clarkson and Schneider, characterize the correctness of a computer program as a condition on its set of computation paths. Standard temporal logics can only refer to a single path at a time, and therefore cannot express many hyperproperties of interest, including noninterference and other important properties in security and coding theory. In this paper, we investigate an extension of temporal logic with explicit path variables. We show that the quantification over paths naturally subsumes other extensions of temporal logic with operators for information flow and knowledge. The model checking problem for temporal logic with path quantification is decidable. For alternation depth 1, the complexity is PSPACE in the length of the formula and NLOGSPACE in the size of the system, as for linear-time temporal logic.