# Monitoring Hyperproperties

Bernd Finkbeiner, Christopher Hahn, Marvin Stenger, Leander Tentrup

Hyperproperties, such as non-interference and observational determinism, relate multiple system executions to each other. They are not expressible in standard temporal logics, like LTL, CTL, and CTL*, and thus cannot be monitored with standard runtime verification techniques. HyperLTL extends linear-time temporal logic (LTL) with explicit quantification over traces in order to express hyperproperties. We investigate the runtime verification problem of HyperLTL formulas for three different input models: (1) The parallel model, where a fixed number of system executions is processed in parallel. (2) The unbounded sequential model, where system executions are processed sequentially, one execution at a time. In this model, the number of incoming executions is a-priori unbounded and may in fact grow forever. (3) The bounded sequential model where the traces are processed sequentially and the number of incoming executions is bounded. We show that the existence of a bound in the parallel and bounded sequential models leads to a different notion of monitorability than in the unbounded sequential model. We show that deciding the monitoriability problem for alternation-free HyperLTL is PSPACE-complete while the problem is undecidable in general. For every input model, we provide monitoring algorithms along with run-time and storage optimizations. By recognizing properties of specifications such as reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity, we reduce the number of comparisons between traces. For the sequential models, we present a technique that minimizes the number of traces that need to be stored. We evaluate our optimizations, showing that this leads to a more scalable monitoring and, in particular, a significantly lower memory consumption.

Formal Methods in System Design (FMSD).

Extended journal version of [FHST17].

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