Teaching Temporal Logics to Neural Networks

Bernd Finkbeiner, Christopher Hahn, Markus N. Rabe, Frederik Schmitt

We show that a deep neural network can learn the semantics of linear-time temporal logic (LTL). As a challenging task that requires deep understanding of the LTL semantics, we show that our network can solve the trace generation problem for LTL: given a satisfiable LTL formula, find a trace that satisfies the formula. We frame the trace generation problem for LTL as a translation task, i.e., to translate from formulas to satisfying traces, and train an off-the-shelf implementation of the Transformer, a recently introduced deep learning architecture proposed for solving natural language processing tasks. We provide a detailed analysis of our experimental results, comparing multiple hyperparameter settings and formula representations. After training for several hours on a single GPU the results were surprising: the Transformer returns the syntactically equivalent trace in 89% of the cases on a held-out test set. Most of the “mispredictions”, however, (and overall more than 99% of the predicted traces) still satisfy the given LTL formula. In other words, the Transformer generalized from imperfect training data to the semantics of LTL.

arxiv preprint.