Is your software on dope? ⋆ Formal analysis of surreptitiously “enhanced” programs
Pedro R. D’Argenio, Gilles Barthe, Sebastian Biewer, Bernd Finkbeiner, and Holger Hermanns
Usually, it is the software manufacturer who employs verification or testing to ensure that the software embedded in a device meets its main objectives. However, these days we are confronted with the sit- uation that economical or technological reasons might make a manufac- turer become interested in the software slightly deviating from its main objective for dubious reasons. Examples include lock-in strategies and the NOx emission scandals in automotive industry. This phenomenon is what we call software doping. It is turning more widespread as software is embedded in ever more devices of daily use. The primary contribution of this article is to provide a hierarchy of simple but solid formal definitions that enable to distinguish whether a program is clean or doped. Moreover, we show that these characterisations provide an immediate framework for analysis by using already existing verification techniques. We exemplify this by applying self-composition on sequential programs and model checking of HyperLTL formulas on reactive models.